Faculty & School/Dept.
Faculty of Health - School of Health Policy & Management
Ph.D. Health Administration - 2003
Department of Health Policy, Management & Evaluation
University of Toronto
M.A. Political Economy - 1997
Institute of Political Economy
B.A. Hons. - 1994
University of Toronto
Dr. Tamara Daly is a CIHR Research Chair in Gender, Work and Health. By training, she is a health services researcher and a political economist who studies health care work, aging and long-term care policy, and gender, ethnicity and health policy. She was recently awarded the following: Faculty of Health Dean’s Research Award -- Established Career (2014); York University Special Recognition for Research Leadership (2013); Faculty of Health Dean's Teaching Award -- Early Career (2012); and the19th annual Labelle Lectureship in health economics and policy research (2010) for her research contributions. To listen to the talk click here: media.yorku.ca:8080/faculty/relay/dalyt/Labelle_Lectureship_-_Flash_(Medium)_-_20101007_12.11.42PM.html
She is currently a co-investigator and co-theme leader on a 7 year SSHRC funded Major Collaborative Research Initiative Re-imagining Long-term Care Residential Care; International Study of Promising Practices headed by Dr. Pat Armstrong, which includes an international team of experts studying promising practices in long-term residential care for older adults across 6 different countries.
Dr. Daly has worked for many years in the area of long-term care, and several co-authored publications have been produced, including those intended to directly address the policy debates: a book entitled “They Deserve Better”(tinyurl.com/2exeb9v), and two policy reports: “There are not enough hands”: Conditions in Ontario’s Long-term care Facilities (tinyurl.com/27hjpsf); and “Out of control”: Violence against personal support workers in long term care (tinyurl.com/26eazn8).
Another recently completed project entitled Contradictions: Health Equity and Women’s Health Services in Toronto (tinyurl.com/257uacf) investigates changes to the organization and delivery of women’s health services in Toronto.
She is currently the Principal Investigator on a CIHR funded research project entitled Invisible Women with Pat Armstrong and Karen Messing as Co-investigators. This study is exploring the provision of informal care by paid companions, volunteers, family and students in long-term care facilities.
Dr. Daly is also the Principal Investigator on a CIHR PHSI grant and Team Grant conducting an intervention study in the York and Laval Regions. Dr. Daly is heading up the York Region arm of the study, focusing specifically on cardiovascular awareness in the South Asian community. The study will also assess gender and volunteer roles.
In previous work, she has explored the experiences of women living with HIV in accessing emotional and social supports, and the illness, injury and violence experienced by Ontario nurses in hospital, long-term care and home care settings.
Pat Armstrong; Albert Banerjee; Marta Szebehely; Hugh Armstrong; Tamara Daly; Stirling Lafrance, (2009) They Deserve Better. The Long-term Care Experience in Canada and Scandinavia, Canada Centre for Policy Alternatives, 1- 157.
Chapters in Books
Tamara Daly (2013) “Imagining an ethos of care in policies, practices and philosophy”, Troubling Care, Canadian Scholars Press.
Marcia Rioux and Tamara Daly (REVISED - 2010), “Constructing Disability and Illness” in Staying Alive: Critical Perspectives on Health, Illness, and Health Care. Ed. by Toba Bryant, Dennis Raphael, and Marcia Rioux, Canadian Scholars Press, 305 – 324.
Tamara Daly and Gordon Grant, (2008) “Crossing Borders: Lifecourse, Rural Ageing and Disability”, in A good place to grow old? Critical perspectives on rural ageing, edited by: Norah Keating, Policy Press, U.K., 11 – 20.
Marcia Rioux and Tamara Daly (2006), “Constructing Disability and Illness” in Staying Alive: Critical Perspectives on Health, Illness, and Health Care. Editors Dennis Raphael, Toba Bryant and Marcia Rioux, Canadian Scholars Press, 305 – 324.
Tamara Daly (2003), “Responding to State Retrenchment: An Historical Perspective on Non-profit Home Health and Social Care in Ontario”, ed. by Paul Leduc Browne, in, The Commodity of Care: Home Care Reform in Ontario, Ottawa: Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, 65 – 120.
Articles in Refereed Journals
Tamara Daly, Jim Struthers, Beatrice Müller, Deane Taylor, Monika Goldmann, Malcolm Doupe and Fröde Fadness Jacobsen, (2016). “Prescriptive or interpretive regulation at the frontlines of care work in the “three worlds” of Canada, Germany and Norway, Labour / Le Travail, forthcoming Spring, 77: pp 1-35.
Tamara Daly and Pat Armstrong (2016) “Liminal and invisible long-term care: precarity in the face of austerity” Journal of Industrial Relations, special issue on Care Work, DOI: 10.1177/0022185616643496.
Julia Brassolotto and Tamara Daly, (2016) Scarcity discourses and their impacts on renal care policies, practices, and everyday experiences in rural British Columbia, Social Science and Medicine. Volume 152, March 2016, Pages 138–146.
Tamara Daly (2015) “Dancing the Two-Step: Deterrence-oriented Regulation = Ownership Consolidation in Ontario’s Long-term Care Sector,” Studies in Political Economy, 95, 29 - 58.
Donna Baines and Tamara Daly (2015) “Resisting Regulatory Rigidities: Lessons from Front-Line Care Work”, Studies in Political Economy, 95, 137-160.
Tamara Daly, Pat Armstrong, and Ruth Lowndes (2015) “Liminality in Ontario’s Long-Term Care Homes: Paid Companions’ Care Work in the Space ‘Betwixt and Between’,” Competition & Change 19(3), 246-263. PMCID: PMC4516401.
Albert Banerjee, Pat Armstrong, Tamara Daly, Hugh Armstrong, Marta Szebehely, and Susan Braedley (2015) “ “Careworkers Don't Have a Voice:” Epistemological Violence in Residential Care for Older People,” Journal of Aging Studies 33, 28-36.
Ruth Lowndes, Pat Armstrong, and Tamara Daly (2015) “The Meaning of ‘Dining’: The Social Organization of Food in Long-Term Care,” Food Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 4 (1), 19-34. PMCID: In Process.
Tamara Daly (2012), “The Politics of Women’s Health Equity; Through the Looking Glass”,
Pat Armstrong, Hugh Armstrong, Tamara Daly, Susan Braedley, (forthcoming 2012) The Thin Blue Line Difficult Dialogues, Necessary Encounters.
Albert Banerjee, Tamara Daly, Pat Armstrong, Marta Szebehely, Hugh Armstrong, Stirling LaFrance. (2012). Structural violence in long-term residential care for older people: Comparing Canada and Scandinavia. Social Science & Medicine, 74(3), 390-398.
Tamara Daly and Marta Szebehely, (2012), “Unheard voices, unmapped terrain: comparing care work in long-term residential care for older people in Canada and Sweden”, International Journal of Social Welfare, 21: 139-148 DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-2397.2011.00806.x.
Tamara Daly; Albert Banerjee; Pat Armstrong; Hugh Armstrong (2011), “Lifting the Violence Veil Using Iterative Mixed Methods in Long-Term Care Research”, Canadian Journal of Aging, 30(2), 271-284.
Pat Armstrong, Hugh Armstrong, Albert Banerjee, Tamara Daly, Marta Szebehely, (2011) “Structural Violence in Long-Term Residential Care” Women’s Health and Urban Life: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal, X(1), 111-129.
Shannon Gravely-Witte; Tamim, H.; Judy Smith; Tamara Daly; and Sherry L. Grace, (2011), “Factors Related to Care-seeking Delay Behaviours for Heart Failure: A Narrative Review” Journal of Cardiac Failure, 17(9): 779-87.
Tamara Daly (2007), “Out of Place: Mediating Health and Social Care at Ontario’s State – Voluntary Sector Divide”, Canadian Journal on Aging, (Suppl.1), 63-75.
Tamara Daly, (2003) “Review: The Best-Laid Plans. Health Care’s Problems and Prospects”. McGill-Queen’s University Press: Montreal, by Lawrie McFarlane and Carlos Prado, Canadian Journal of Political Science.
Tamara Daly and Ruth Lowndes (Nov 2015) “Promising Practice: Thought for Food” in Promising Practices: Re-Imagining Long-Term Care, Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, pp 69-71.
Tamara Daly and Martha MacDonald (Nov 2015). “Promising Practice: Realizing Personal Care Through Dining” in Promising Practices: Re-Imagining Long-Term Care, Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, pp 44-46.
Marcia Rioux; Ezra Zubrow; Christy Speilman; Miha Dinca-Panaitescu; Gail Kunkel; and Tamara Daly (2007), “Who’s In and Who’s Out? Literacy, Disability and Canadian Labour Force Participation" Abilities, Spring 2007, pp. 51-2.
Julie Maggi; and Tamara Daly (2006), “Gender matters: understanding the emotional and social support needs of women with HIV/AIDS” Centres of Excellence for Women’s Health Research Bulletin, 5, (2), pp. 16-17.
Christy Spielman; Ezra Zubrow; Marcia Rioux, Tamara Daly; Miha Dinca-Panaitescu; and Gail Kunkel (2006), “The Data Trail: Steps to Discovery in Research”; Abilities, Issue 69, Winter 2006, pp. 50 -51.
Gail Kunkel; Tamara Daly; Christy Spielman; Miha Dinca-Panaitescu; Marcia Rioux; and Ezra Zubrow (2006), “Charting a New Course: Emancipatory Research Maps the Links between Literacy and Disability” Abilities, Summer 2006, pp. 54-55.
Other Research Outputs
Tamara Daly, Pat Armstrong, and Julia Brassolotto (February 10-12, 2016). “Links and Kinks in the Long-term Care Work Chain,” AIRAANZ Conference, Sydney, Australia.
Tamara Daly (November 19, 2015) “Care gaps, overlaps and traps: Private and public in Long-term Care,” Normacare Conference, Stockholm, Sweden.
Tamara Daly (September 17th-18th, 2015). The formal workforce - challenges, Panel: Later Stages of dementia: Changing needs and resources, Canadian Academy of Health Sciences 2015 Forum and Annual General Meeting “The Rising Tide of Dementia in Canada: Facing the critical challenge by 2025”, Ottawa Fairmont Chateau Laurier, Ottawa.
Tamara Daly and Pat Armstrong (April 13-15, 2015) “Are We Past Precarity? Liminality and Invisible Labour in Residential Long-term Care,” International Labour Process Conference, Athens, Greece.
Tamara Daly, Pat Armstrong, and Ruth Lowndes (February 3 2015) “Lean Cuisine: Kitchens, Contracting and Care Work,” Association of Industrial Relations Academics of Australia and New Zealand, Auckland, New Zealand.
Tamara Daly (December 2014) “Cookbook Care: Kitchens, Contracting and Care Work,” NORDCARE Conference, Copenhagen Denmark.
Ruth Lowndes, Tamara Daly, Pat Armstrong (October 19-23, 2014) “‘Leisurely Dining’: Exploring How Work Organization and Informal Care Shape Residents’ Dining Experiences in Long-Term Care,” Qualitative Health Research Conference, Victoria, British Columbia.
Tamara Daly (October 19-23 2014) “From the Care Gap to the Invisible Labour Trap: Rapid Ethnography as a ‘Way in’ to Long-Term Care,” Qualitative Health Research Conference, Victoria, British Columbia.
Tamara Daly, Ruth Lowndes, Pat Armstrong, Karen Messing, Vishaya Naidoo, Iffath Syed, Martin Chadoin (October 16-18 2014) “‘Mapping’ Meal Times: Invisible Care Work and Irregular Care Needs in Long-term Care,” Canadian Association of Gerontology: Landscapes of Aging: Critical Issues, Emerging Possibilities, Niagara Falls, Canada.
Tamara Daly, Malcolm Doupe, Monika Goldman, Frode Fadnes Jacobsen, Beatrice Müller, Jim Struthers, Deanne Taylor (October 3-4, 2014) “Why do Prescriptive or Interpretive Approaches to Long-Term Care Staffing Regulations Matter? An Exploration of Restrictive, Resistive, and Responsive Work Organization Models,” Dissent + Resistance in the Workplace in the Context of Neoliberalism, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada.
Martin Chadoin, Karen Messing, Tamara Daly, Pat Armstrong, Vishaya Naidoo, Charlotte Rowell, Iffath Syed and Ruth Lowndes (October 7-9, 2014) “When Management Indicators Make Work Harder and Less Satisfying: The Case of Personal Support Workers in Ontario,” Quand les indicateurs de gestion dégradent le travail: Le cas de préposés aux bénéficiaires en Ontario, 45th Annual Conference of the Association of Canadian Ergonomists, Montreal, Canada.
Iffath Syed, Tamara Daly, Ruth Lowndes, Pat Armstrong, Martin Chadoin, Vishaya Naidoo, and Charlotte Rowell (May 28, 2014) “How Do Care Work Hierarchies & Task Orientation Impact Care Workers’ Experiences of Occupational Health and Safety? Case Studies of LTC in Toronto,” Canadian Public Health Association, Toronto, Canada.
Tamara Daly (May 1415, 2014) “How Do We See Invisible Labour in Long-term Care?” “Re-Directing the Gaze: An International Quest for Promising Practices in Long-Term Residential Care” International Care Research Conference, Re-Imagining Long-Term Residential Care: International Study of Promising Practices, Bergen, Norway.
Tamara Daly, Pat Armstrong and Ruth Lowndes, (Feb 5-7 2014) “Liminality in Ontario’s long-term care homes: Private companions in the space “betwixt and between” formal/informal regulation and care work”, Melbourne, Australia, The Association of Industrial Relations Academics in Australia and New Zealand (AIRAANZ) Conference.
Donna Baines and Tamara Daly (Feb 5 – 7, 2014) “The state of non-profit care work: convergence under austerity” Melbourne, Australia, The Association of Industrial Relations Academics in Australia and New Zealand (AIRAANZ) Conference.
Ruth Lowndes, Pat Armstrong and Tamara Daly, (October 15-16, 2013), The Meaning of “Dining”: The Social Organization of Food in Long-term Care, Austin, Texas.
Tamara Daly, Ruth Lowndes, Pat Armstrong, Charlotte Rowell, Martin Chadoin, Vishaya Naidoo, Iffath Syed and Karen Messing (October 27-29) "Mapping" invisible care: how are nursing homes’ dining spaces sites of informal care? Qualitative Health Research, Halifax, Nova Scotia
Tamara Daly and Donna Baines (Sept 2013) “Time Keeps on slippin’...into the future: women, time and the bottom line in Residential Long-term Care in Canada”, British Sociological Association, Work, Employment Society Conference 2013.
Tamara Daly, “Who cares? Legislating Lean long-term care” (May 28th 2013) Re-imagining Long-term Residential Care: Do Regulations Make it Harder to Care? Toronto, Ontario
Donna Baines and Tamara Daly (May 2013) Resisting Regulatory Rigidities: Lessons from Front-line Care Work, Re-imagining Long-term Residential Care: Do Regulations Make it Harder to Care? Toronto, Ontario.
Tamara Daly (March 2013) “Code Work: RAI-MDS, Measurement and Work Organization in Long Term Residential Care in Ontario” International Labour Process Conference, Rutgers University, New Jersey.
Tamara Daly (March 2013) “aCOUNTability: legislating lean long-term care” International Labour Process Conference, Rutgers University, New Jersey.
Tamara Daly (June 2012), “Imagining an Ethos of Care”, Canadian Sociological Association, Waterloo, Ontario.
Albert Banerjee, Pat Armstrong, Tamara Daly, Hugh Armstrong, Marta Szebehely, Susan Braedley, (2011). “No! Personal Support Workers Have No Voice:” Epistemological Violence in Residential Care for Older People, The Australian Sociological Association, Annual Meeting (Newcastle, NSW), Nov 29-Dec 2, 2011.
Albert Banerjee, Tamara Daly, Hugh Armstrong, Pat Armstrong, Marta Szebehely, “The politics of violence in residential care for older people: gender, structure and suffering, (Sept 7 – 10, 2011), 10th Conference of the European Sociological Association, Uni-Mail, Geneva Switzerland.
Tamara Daly, Julie Maggi and Elizabeth Harrison, (June 2011), “Exploring HIV as a “health determinant of the social”: women’s experiences living with HIV in Toronto, Canada”, 1st International HIV Social Science and Humanities Conference, Durban, South Africa.
Tamara Daly & Marta Szebehely, (June 2010), “Unheard voices, unmapped terrain: care work and long-term residential care for older people in Canada and Sweden” Revised paper presented to Transforming care: Provision, quality and inequalities in late life. International conference at the Danish National Centre for Social Research (SFI), Copenhagen, 21-23 June 2010.
Tamara Daly and Miha Dinca-Panaitescu. (May 30th, 2010), “The Place of Care: Long-term Care Facilities Across Canada”, Canadian Sociological and Anthropological Association, Concordia University, Montreal.
Tamara Daly (April 29 – 30th, 2010), "Women’s Health Equity; Through the Looking Glass”, Sharing Research on Gender, Social Policy and Collective Action", Glendon College, York University, Toronto Ontario.
Jackie Choiniere, Judith MacDonnell, Tamara Daly, and Hope Shamonda. (October 2009), “Nurses’ mental health risks: a report of on-going research”, We Can Do IT: Evidence and Interventions for Transforming Mental Health in the Workplace, 4th Annual Canadian Congress for Research on Mental Health and Addiction in the Workplace, Toronto, Canada (October 28 – 30, 2009).
Szebehely, Marta and Daly, Tamara. (Aug 20 -22, 2009) Unheard voices, unmapped terrain: comparative welfare research and paid care for older people in Sweden and Canada, RC19 Conference, Social Policies: Local Experiments, Travelling Ideas, International Sociological Association. Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Daly, Tamara (May 27 – 28, 2009) Invisible Caring, Women and Long-term Care Work Canadian Sociology and Anthropology Conference, May 26-29, 2009, Carleton University, Ontario Canada.
Daly, Tamara; Banerjee, Albert; Armstrong, Hugh; Armstrong, Pat; and S. Lafrance, (May 22-24, 2009). Making Structural Violence Visible: Qualitative Inquiry in Long-Term Care Research Fifth International Congress of Qualitative Inquiry (QI2009) University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois.
Armstrong, Pat, Banerjee, Albert, Armstrong, Hugh. Daly, Tamara. Szebehely, Marta (October 2008) “Violence, Gender, and Workload in Health Services,” Fifth International Congress on Women, Work and Health, Cuidad de Zacatecas, Zacatecas, Mexico October 27-31, 2008.
Daly, Tamara; Armstrong, Pat; Armstrong, Hugh; Braedley, Susan; Oliver, Vanessa; Merali-Merchant, Sabiha; and Green, Monnah. (June 2007) Caring for women: a case study of two hospital-based approaches, Gender, Work and Organization Conference, Keele, U.K.
Daly, Tamara, Armstrong, Pat, and Armstrong, Hugh. (June 2007) Workplace/Home Space: Conditions in Canada's Long Term Care Homes, Gender, Work and Organization Conference, Keele, U.K.
Chivers, Sally; Daly, Tamara; and Roy, Carole; (May 2007) Locating Caregiving at the Intersection of Gender and Time Hidden Costs / Invisible Contributions Conference, Edmonton, Alberta.
R.H. McGregor Elementary School
School Advisory Committee
Dean's Research Award (Established Career), Faculty of Health - 2014
Dean's Teaching Award (Early Career), Faculty of Health - 2012
Dean’s Health Research Catalyst Award, Faculty of Health - 2010
19th Annual Labelle Lectureship - 2010
CIHR/CHSRF Postdoctoral Award Fellowship - 2003
CIHR/ NHRDP Doctoral Award - 2000
Currently available to supervise graduate students: Yes
Currently taking on work-study students, Graduate Assistants or Volunteers: Yes
Available to supervise undergraduate thesis projects: No
Invisible Women: Gender and the Shifting Division of Labour in Long-term Residential Care
How does growth in the number of private duty carers coupled with the care work performed by unpaid students, volunteers and family members in long-term residential care facilities impact the organization of care? The study is specifically interested in how occupational health and safety and the division of labour are affected by the informal care provided by people other than those employed at the facility. It is mostly women who are employed in long-term residential care.
Recent health human resources research does recognize that women are the overwhelming majority of paid providers but consideration of gender in relation to paid health care work is not common, as is evident when reviewing the 2010 health systems trends report from the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care. While we have little information on the gendered dimensions of paid work in long term residential care, we have next to no information about the other paid and unpaid carers in facilities, nor is this informal care acknowledged in research or in policy. Addressing this gap is of vital importance because of the implications for our understanding of facility care, of the safety of the space and of the people who live and work there. We will survey all nursing homes and retirement homes in Ontario, and conduct interviews and detailed observations of units in 5 facilities in Toronto and with selected residents and their carers in each of the 5 facilities to elicit answers to several important overarching questions:
1. How has the division of labour shifted for facility employees due to the work performed by informal carers (i.e. paid private duty carers, students, volunteers and family members)?
2. In what ways are workloads and occupational health and safety in the facilities affected by the care performed by these other carers?
3. Finally, how do we understand the amount of time available for care (e.g. staff intensity) when we account for work performed by other carers?
Role: Principal Investigator
Year Funded: 2012
Funded by: Canadian Institutes of Health Research
Nurses at risk: exploring gender and race in workplace illness, injury and violence
This study explores nurses' occupational health. It is particularly relevant given the aging workforce and high proportion of visible minorities and immigrant women currently working and anticipated to be working as health professionals. The study combines key informant interviews and focus groups of nurses working in hospitals, home care and long-term care facilities, and analysis of the Masterfile data from the 2005 National Survey on the Work and Health of Nurses (NSWHN).
Year Funded: 2008
Funded by: Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council
Re-imagining Long-term Care Residential Care; International Study of Promising Practices
Long-term residential care is where many of our most vulnerable members live and, in spite of moves towards aging in place, where many will continue to live in the future. It is also a workplace for thousands of paid and unpaid providers, most of whom are women and many of whom are from racialized communities. It is a barometer of values and practices; a signal of economic, cultural and social perspectives. It raises issues well beyond specific services and practices; issues such as human and social rights, the role of the state, responsibilities of individuals and families, work organization and skills; and notions of care. Yet too often it is characterized as failure; failure of the family to care, failure of the health care system to cure and failure of the individual to live independently, perhaps explaining why it has received so little research and policy attention.
Instead of focusing mainly on failures, this project identifies promising practices for conceptualizing and organizing long-term care, learning from and with other countries. What approaches to care, to work organization, to accountability, to financing and ownership offer the most promising practices when the goal is to treat both providers and residents with dignity and respect, to understand care as a relationship and to take differences and equity into account? What contexts and conditions support these practices, allowing residents and providers to flourish? These are questions for the social sciences and humanities, as well as for those who deliver, those who organize and those who need care.
Year Funded: 2010
Funded by: Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council
The Cardiovascular Health Awareness Program (CHAP) for the South Asian Community in York Region: Assessing volunteer participation and the gender and ethno-specific impacts
This important project applies more than a decades worth of work done as part of the Cardiovascular Health Awareness Program (CHAP) to the goal of reducing the impact of cardiovascular disease for York region’s South Asian community. Through a series of studies, CHAP has been shown to be an acceptable intervention to reduce participants’ blood pressure, encourage lifestyle changes and to optimize drug regimens. The project aims to extend its proven successes by adapting its material and approaches to the York Region South Asian Community, to assess the voluntary model of program delivery, and to identify gender and ethno-specific impacts of the program.
RESEARCH QUESTION & OBJECTIVES
The main research questions are:
1. What adaptation strategies to the Cardiovascular Health Awareness Program (CHAP) should be put in place in order to successfully prevent and manage chronic disease among the South Asian community?
2. How can we address gender and ethno-specific impacts?
3. What are the best strategies to optimize the recruitment, retention and health promotion role
of peer health educators among the South Asian Community?
Role: Principal Investigator
Year Funded: 2013
Funded by: Canadian Institutes of Health Research
Canadian Chronic Disease Awareness and Management Program (C-CHAMP)
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is experienced differently by men and by women (Pilote, Dasgupta et al., 2007). For instance, studies have shown that five modifiable risk factors (i.e. abnormal lipids, current smoking, abdominal obesity, high risk diet, and psychosocial stress factors) are similarly experienced by men and women as risks for myocardial infarction (MI), but that four others (i.e. hypertension, diabetes, physical activity and moderate alcohol use) are more strongly associated with MI for women than for men (Anand et al 2008).
In addition, Anand and colleagues (2008) have shown that women experience acute MI for the first time an average of 9 years later than men. Other recent studies have demonstrated that women have different risk factors, present to physicians with different symptoms, and also experience different access to follow-up treatments in their CVD care (Grace, Fry et al., 2004; Murdaugh, 1990). A growing body of evidence has examined gender-based socio-economic barriers (Gettleman and Winkleby, 2000; Johnson and Fulp, 2002; King, Thomlinson et al., 2006; Lawlor, Davey et al., 2005; Lawlor, Smith et al., 2004), and the impact of ethnicity, class, gender, and geographic location on CVD (Graham-Garcia, Raines et al., 2001; Mensah and Dunbar, 2006; Wong and Wong 2002). While we have good research data that supports the need for gender / sex -targeted health strategies for CVD, there remains a need for programs that focus on the combination of sex (biology), as well as gender (e.g. social, cultural, economic and political experiences) (Rieker and Bird, 2005). Given the biological / gendered dimensions of CVD, this program aims to address sex and gender by conducting an intervention based on what is known about modifiable risk factors, then evaluating how outcomes may differ for women and men, and how the efficacy of a peer to peer voluntary model differs when comparing cultural and gender groups.
Role: Principal Investigator
Year Funded: 2013
Funded by: Canadian Institutes of Health Research